From the Oslo process to the second Intifada, answers from the International Community regarding the Palestinian situation have changed from development projects planned over several years to food security emergency interventions. These interventions have an impact on natural resources, commercial agreements, land rights, agricultural national policy, etc. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview of the food security sector in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), through an analysis of the actors in charge and policies adopted. It focuses on the responses to acute crisis after the beginning of the international boycott of the elected Hamas led government in January 2006. In the OPT, where the movement of goods and people, access to natural resources, borders, imports and exports are almost entirely controlled by Israel, food security is revealing itself to be a political program. It is also very challenging to set up a national agricultural policy, partly because of the role of Palestinian NGOs and international donors. Moreover, the second Intifada and the boycott of the Hamas-led government have had a disastrous impact on Palestinian food security.